THE MOLECULAR WAR
ANN WORLD (RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT)
To begin with author would like to state that, working on this interdisciplinary complex subject is a great challenge. Author had been working on this interdisciplinary subject since more than last fifteen years. Human being learnt from today’s forced lock down experience that many new viruses may come to shut down our activities in future too. We should be prepared at all times to combat with any known and unknown enemy. Author predicted today’s situation by a personal tweet on 2nd MAY, 2019.
Author hopes the lines will be taken into consideration either today or tomorrow. Author must apologize for any missing data which could not be presented. Author dedicates this article to all Scientists, Doctors, Teachers, Health workers, Garbage Cleaners, Common People and All Decision Makers In World.
ABSTRACT- This article shall look into the following questions : How to be best prepared to face the infectious airborne viruses to come? Is there any new strategy to fight airborne viruses ? Till date, we have been looking for solutions to fight these viruses only after those have attacked the human body. These questions bring us to the heart of our research which aims to speculate on a new strategy of dealing with airborne viruses. I wish to explore the following lead : There is a way which can help us to defeat any airborne virus before those infiltrate into the human body. This opens before us a new dimension of study altogether. The strategy of self defense is the molecular war in the atmosphere surrounding us. My research proposes to attack the airborne virus while it is still moving in the atmosphere, and thus to render it impotent even before it can act on the human body. This invention focuses on activity of molecules of different selected herb extract which acts as ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME -2 RECEPTOR BLOCKER ON OLFACTORY MUCOSA. We could be faced with many more unknown viruses. We will tackle these mortal enemies. However, before entering into this discussion it will be necessary to take a closer look at viruses to understand their properties.
Key Word- Airborne Virus, Droplets, SARS-COV-2 Covid-19, Molecular war, Antimicrobial oil complex, Docking, Surfactant property of Antimicrobial oil, Olfactory nerve (brief), CNS (brief), Mask and reflex action (brief), Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2), Neurology, Angiotensin-Converting enzyme-2.
A general overview on the properties of a virus
Airborne viruses are structured by different molecules enveloped within a water droplet suspended in the air. As long as a virus is not in contact with a host cell it exists in the form of independent aerosolized particle. The droplets which are less than 5 micron in size suspend in the air. Those droplets are dispersed by aerodynamic forces, which are also enhanced to contact host cell during inhalation. Here beneath is an illustration of the structural component of Influenza virus for comparison with SARS-COV-2 (Covid 19) to fix the strategy of molecular war to disrupt its structure. Influenza virus is structured with 1) Nucleoprotein (RNA) 2) Capsid 3) Lipid bilayer envelope 4).
GLYCOPROTEINS – a) Hemagglutinin and b) Neuraminidase (sialidase) 6) M2 Protein. Interestingly, Neuraminidase (sialidase) looks like spike.
Structure of SARS-COV-2 (Covid 19)
The largest RNA molecules known to Biology
Airborne virus like influenza, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), those are transmitted by small size droplets suspended in air and as fomites on surface. Alveolar tissues of lower respiratory tract are infected and heaviest molecules (fomites) drop on the surface. We have already realized that if the Covid 19 has been able to establish itself across the countries, as a pandemic today, it is because of the human body which has served as a carrier to this virus, through various transports such as flights, ships, trains, shopping complex, common lift etc. And in future, the virus will continue to depend on this means of transmission. Any confined zone like train compartment, public toilets, bus and air conditioned bus or cars are the sensitive means by which those bioaerosols and droplets easily affect us by inhalation or in contact with fomites. The aerodynamic force and inhalation is the reason behind the quick attachment of spike (glycoprotein) to the receptor of host cell. So, if we wish to stop or interrupt this transmission the only reliable solution seems to be the following one: to attack the virus before it comes in contact with a receptor of host cell and replicates. That would mean, that we have to attack the virus while it is still in the air within a micro droplet. Our research proposes thus, to intervene at the molecular level and this is where a molecular war begins. And that brings us to a molecular war. Thus, the concept of interaction between molecules seems to be the only solution to abolish this enemy.
ACE-2 –ACE2 is identified as the cellular receptor of SARS-CoV-2, the infective agent responsible for coronavirus disease. Receptor binding domain of SARS- COV-2 virus has the property to bind its receptor ACE2 strongly. The attachment of proteins is the key factor of infection. If we go through detail analytical study many other information are available based on different works. Here I would like to focus on the deactivation of both the proteins to bind each other externally. As earlier I mentioned that we should not take into consideration of the recent pandemic only. The aim of this research is to fight against all unknown airborne viruses. We should destroy their mechanism before those can interact with our receptor. The surfactant in the antimicrobial oil complex is enough capable to discard this mechanism of interaction between the proteins.
Till date, we have been looking for solutions to fight the viruses only after they have attacked the human body. Practically this is very hard to establish any standard vaccine within a short time. Moreover in future how many vaccines can be developed within a short period for other unknown viruses ? This is a question of human survival in earth. When I tweeted this pandemic, I had no idea about its attack within one year. I still believe strongly, there are many other unknown viruses yet to appear. Recently in BOLIVIA, scientists have found CHAPARE- a Covid like virus which transmits from human to human.
In the first part of this research I shall speculate how to destroy any airborne virus using other molecules.
Selected Antimicrobial volatile oil molecules from selected antimicrobial medicinal herb extract with human friendly surfactant and Natural Flavonoids which is a possible strategy against virus attack and Human friendly ACE-2 Receptor blocler: It has already been established that the airborne viruses spread through air, and through the particles which are ejected by coughing and sneezing. In order to stop spreading viruses through the air, after researching carefully on certain plants and their anti microbial properties, I propose to compose a human friendly complex oil with different anti microbial oils extracted from selected medicinal plants with surfactant property, which acts as an antimicrobial missile in the airborne molecular war. This complex mixture is composed of more than 17 types of human friendly antimicrobial herbs. Ethyl alcohol or Iso propyl alcohol can be added to antimicrobial plant oil. Author distributed his formulated complex oil on request at no cost to several people across the country who meets every day many people in high risk zone of Covid-19. All users are found safe and comfortable till date. Someone was feeling of anxiety and agitation caused by the presence or nearness of Covid positive patients, they rushed to taste themselves. But, the result was negative. Author has applied for patent on this complex formulation. There are many such evidences are noted in last more than nine months.
When the molecules of bio aerosols and droplets from infected person come in interaction with the molecule of antimicrobial plant oil, microbial structure is ultimately disrupted.
Coming back to viruses, it is important to note that they are capable to travel in the environment. However there is controversy in the actual distance the virus can travel. But, those have travelling potentiality to attack human beings or animals. Moreover dispersion property is better in cold, humid, dry as well as in confined zones. But, practically their travelling potentiality is reduced due to many conditions in environment. So, this is better to consider the atmosphere we are closed to. Nature is full of plant wealth. Different types of essential oils (volatile oils) are obtained from flowers, buds, seeds, leaves, twigs, bark, herbs, wood, fruits, and roots. These oils have potential properties to inhibit infection from viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Thus, if we emphasize on the anti-viral characteristics of plants molecules, we can clearly find the defense mechanism of essential oils. The viricidal activity of essential oils, which are lipophilic by nature, is due to disruption of the viral membrane or interference with viral envelope proteins involved in host cell attachment.
Consequently, many of these essential oils have been used in various cultures for medicinal and health purposes, food preservation, pharmaceuticals, alternative medicine, and natural therapies for centuries.
Page 16/28 these essential oils have antibacterial, antifungal, anti-viral insecticidal, and antioxidant properties [35,
Analysis of docking studies, carried by different software and different methods proved that antimicrobial oil molecules blocks the binding proteins and might help the host defence against COVID-19, Following the virtual screening and lead identification studies, the design and arrangement of complex antimicrobial essential oil molecules are optimized to combat different microbes.
Therefore it is very important to take into consideration the strong interaction between Bio aerosols, droplets and complex antimicrobial volatile oil molecules in order to protect human beings and animals in nature. As per my observations this is the actual strategy of war against suspended bioaerosols and droplets which contain virus or bacteria. This is also the key solution to kill or disable the virus while it is still in the aerosols or droplets and to stop it from attaching itself with any host cell, because after interaction with antimicrobial oil molecules, its physicochemical property is changed.
At this point, author wish to mention the property of molecules to come in contact or repulse each other. When two molecules come in contact with each other, it is very important to take into consideration their electrical charge, because this will be the responsible factor for determining which molecule shall win over the other. Thus, in order to compose antimicrobial volatile aromatic molecules which will win over the disease causing bio aerosols, we need to select the right molecules and determine carefully the right electrical charge.
In this endeavor we should also take into consideration the mechanism of the Glycoprotein of a virus. This is the key factor in the virus’ mechanism of attaching itself with the receptor of a host cell.
Keeping these two factors in mind, at the level of molecular studies we notice that glycoproteins are always able to establish a good electrostatic interaction with the receptor of any host cell. This can be explained by fact that the host cell in itself is of positive charge, while its receptor possesses strong negative charge. So, glycoproteins with a positive charge always go for electrostatic interactions with negative charge receptor of target host cells. These fundamental observations about the virus, lead us to design negative charged molecules of volatile antimicrobial herbal oil with a very high mobility. Along with this molecule of oil, we have combined alcohol or iso propyl alcohol which can easily interact with negative charged hydrophillic glycoprotein. More over, IPA has the property to dissolve organic acids such as glycoprotein, which is covalently attached with an amino acid side chain. Surfactant molecules disrupt the lipid bylayer envelope. When the antimicrobial oil is sprayed in the atmosphere through nozzle, molecules are dispersed at random. This triggers a direct molecular interaction between the droplets containing virus and the volatile negative charged antimicrobial oil molecules. As a result the virus’ structure is disrupted.
Another point to be noted about the inactivation mechanism of glycoprotein is its hydrophilic property. This allows it to be highly active in aqueous atmosphere, and therefore very adequate in binding other molecules. In respect to this characteristic of Glycoprotein, one more advantage of the antimicrobial herbal oil is that in contact with these oil molecules the hydrophilic property of glycoprotein is altered. This phenomenon is extremely effective in disabling the glycoprotein from binding itself with the receptor of host cells.
An active interaction takes place between charged molecules. During this interaction between two or more molecules, the viral protein which enables adhesion to host cell is damaged. Similarly, the lipid bilayer around the capsid which contains viral glycoproteins is ruptured.. Since the virus itself is damaged before interaction, it is practically impossible for it to penetrate inside any of the surrounding host cells. This whole mechanism is presented in the following illustration.
Another important common observation, when we put a drop of oil in water, the molecule of oil is dispersed on the water and a thin film is formed on top. This molecular property results in changes in the structure and behavior of droplet in contact with an oil molecule.This can be explained by the adhesive force which the molecules of water and oil are subjected to. In fact, when two different molecules come in contact with each other, they are subjected to two possible reactions which will depend on the properties of the molecules in question : if two molecules are from the same substance come in contact, those repel each other due to cohesive force, as well if two molecules are from the different substance come in contact,those attract each other due to adhesive force.
This same phenomenon is applicable when we sneeze and the particles ejected by the sneeze (which are bio aerosol and droplets containing bacteria and virus) come in contact with the oil molecules. When the anti-microbial oil molecules come in contact with the droplet, a thin film is formed around the water droplet by the principle of the adhesive force. As a result water droplet is flattened alongwith oil molecules and virus is exposed to antimicrobial oil molecules. In direct contact with antimicrobial oil molecules virus is disabled and its structure is ruptured. This whole phenomenon is described in the following illustration.
Observations from the neurology point of view
An overview of our olfactory tract :
A volatile molecule which is commonly known as aroma, those are airborne molecules transported to our olfactory system (in the upper part of our nose). Many viruses utilize this easy olfactory route to infect host cell. Airborne viruses attack the sensory olfactory epithelium and cause inability to smell. This is known as anosmia. Covid patient is also faced with amnesia symptom. In this regard, I wish to bring to your notice that in many of the covid-19 cases, patients have signaled problems of amnesia.
In order to confront this ingenious strategy of attack of the new viruses, we shall base ourselves on aroma science. To begin with, aroma is a volatile molecule which is transported directly to the olfactory tract through the olfactory nerves in the nasal cavity. Aromatic volatile antimicrobial oils play same role when dispersed in air. Additionally those have immunostimulatory effects too.
Olfactory receptor neurons (ORN) are responsible for the detection of odor (chemical molecule) in the environment by a Odorant Receptor Protein. Cells of ORN are bipolar neurons. Nuclei of bipolar neurons are in the base of the epithelium which is receptor of airborne virus too. This seems to be most easy route of quick viral infection. After thorough analysis I believe strongly this is the route of immediate glycoprotein attachment to host cell by many ways, which is too long to explain. So, this is understood that before virus gets entry, the volatile antimicrobial oil molecules play its role to disable the infection potentiality of virus by disrupting its structure. Apart from this, the selected plant aroma stimulates our nerve and brain to fight against many adverse factors.
This also acts as an indicator to our ORN the presence of volatile antimicrobial oil molecules in our nasal path and ensures safety.
Does this imply that any perfume could be effective to protect us from virus and to fight against disease ? The answer is not yet known. It is important for the aromatic oil to contain anti microbial property without any cytotoxic activity on human being.
Selected herbal oil is the right choice as it is safe.That causes disruption of viruses in its totality.
Neurological benefits of the antimicrobial plant oil
Studying the matter closely there are three stages of aroma dispersion when the volatile oil is sprayed in the atmosphere.
Effects of Light weight molecules
Light weight molecules are censored very fast by the olfactory nerve after the oil is sprayed. The molecules are very dynamic. As this is quickly censored by olfactory nerves, on the way of travelling these molecules towards olfactory nerves, airborne virus moving towards nasal cavity is disrupted. In fact virus cannot attach to the receptor of the host cell. REF. ILLUSTRATION-3
Effects of medium weight molecules
The molecules normally appear within 1minute to three hours after spray. This also behaves in above mentioned method.
Effect of heaviest molecules
Molecular weight is very high. But they can be smelt on surface and kill microbes adjacent to it. But, in this interaction droplets are flattened on surface and fomites are destroyed rapidly. ILLUSTRATION-2 (FIG-4).
MASK- This is stated that mask is effective to prevent viral transmission. I have few words on this topic. We should wash our hands if fingers touch outer surface of mask. So, eye also should be taken in consideration for virus transmission through tears. But, can we ignore our inborn REFLEX ACTION mechanism which is beyond our control? If something irritates our eye or nose, without our consciousness afferent nerve is excited which causes quick movement of the muscle or glands of hands to touch eye or nose. We can’t stop this inborn mechanism. The pore diameter of common masks ranged from 80 to 500 μm, you can see the pores using a simple magnifying glass or ordinery microscope, which are much bigger than particular matter having diameter of 2.5 μm or less. Coronaviruses size is highly variable and generally is an average diameter of 120 nm. You can’t see it by magnifying glass or ordinary microscope . So, what is the science that this small size virus can’t travel through larger pores of mask during our inhalation & exhalation? What is the logic behind this? How a person is being infected wearing mask? What is the next effect on human health due to forced inhalation? Because, common people have no such awareness. But, everyone in world understands logical answer of any technical argument. This answer will help everyone.
This is important to note, while outer surface of mask comes in contact with an infective droplet, fabric absorbs droplet but virus is released and attached with fabric cell. We inhale about 500ml.air during normal breathing and we exhale carbon di oxide with moisture. The exhaled moisture slowly wets the mask. A mask never allows us breath comfortably as the wet fabric inhibits free intake of fresh air. Breathing discomfort has also a harmful impact on our health. At this stage forced inhalation helps to inhale more air. Virus is hydrophillic by nature that follows an easy travel way through exhhaled moisture which come in contact with virus. Subsequenly, forced inhalation helps the enemy to entire our nasal path. This research proposes to disable the virus on outer surface of mask at the time of its first contact. If a myst of antimicrobial oil is sprayed on the outer surface of mask before use, virus is disabled easily.
How we can avoid wearing a mask all times-
If someone is facing breathing trouble and not comfortable to cover nose all times – As we have discussed earlier the difficulties and breathing discomfort due to continuous use of mask, the safest method is described here.
Take a little oil mix on the palm of hand. Ru bit by finger. The solvent part is quickly evaporated from the palm of hand. Just dip your finger into this oil mix and wet your nostril. This will help to protect the virus entry to attach ACE-2 PROTEIN. This is very effective way to avoid airborne virus infection before it reaches receptor cell in nasal path.. You can repeat this whenever you are in closed contact of other persons. See the picture of nostril inside, where to apply.
Author has conducted several tests of a designed complex volatile oil which is prepared with different molecules of oils from more than 17 selected medicinal plants species which has no cytotoxic activity on human being. Author conducted tests in public toilets, common places. Pathological report could not show any microorganism growth after 24 hours whereas without antimicrobial oil significant presence of microorganism is noticed.
Author distributed his formulated complex oil on request at no cost to several people across the country who meets every day many people in high risk zone of Covid-19. All users are found safe and comfortable till date. Someone was feeling of anxiety and agitation caused by the presence or nearness of Covid positive patients, they rushed to taste themselves. But, the result was negative. This is also observed that COVID positive patient who lost smell and taste, after spraying the designed oil mix in air, the patient gets smell and the other family members are not affected. Another observation shows that person suffering from breathing problem can breathe comfortably after using this. Author has applied for patent on this complex formulation.
The complex volatile aromatic antimicrobial plant extract is enough capable to disable or destroy microorganisms which are airborne and fomites. The designed complex is non-allergic to children skin. Its aroma is acceptable. This is a reliable solution to the fatal attack of any Airborne viruses and Covid-19 too. I also wish to add that I have tried to focus on airborne viruses from various angles and in the light of multiple disciplines such as physics, chemistry, biochemistry, bio technology, cell biology, physiology, aromatic theory, and neuroscience. However there are lack of enough evidences that virus can transmit through nervous system. But, presence of ACE-2 in epithellium is proven. So, this theory could establish the disruption of the total infection mechanism using antiviral molecule spray. This pluri disciplinary approach makes it a vast study with many factors to be taken into consideration. In this article, I have tried my best to expose the complexities and to propose new possible strategies in the area of airborne anti viral research, but this study would have merited a whole theses for me to do justice. However, I hope this will be of help for future studies in this area.
Author requests everyone not to be afraid of any airborne virus including COV-19. The strong reasons behind this statement are explained in this article. Human being is familiar to overcome all the challenges which is proven in past. This challenge can defeat anything against survival.
In conclusion to this study, I wish to convey my sympathy and regards to all the doctors and health workers. They are doing their duty regardless of fear, at the cost of their own health and sometimes at the cost of their lives.
As we know, in many cases they are also being infected. If the front liners are equipped with one light weight Oxygen cyllinder while in contact with Covid affected patients they will be comfortable and fearless to tackle the situation. I request the decission makers to take this in consideration. I wish to say that the Covid-19 virus is not the last of its kind. In future mankind shall be faced with so many more unknown viruses, and very certainly, science and research which are constantly evolving, will bring about many other innovative ideas and novel solutions.This is proven, this anti microbial oil is only one of the solutions amongst so many others to come. But one thing I am convinced about, is that dealing with virus attack at a molecular level.
©ANN WORLD (Research & Development)